October 30, 2023

Are Upper Respiratory Infections Contagious?

Upper respiratory infections (URIs) are among the most common viral illnesses in the United States, with children experiencing around seven per year and adults around three. While many of these infections resolve independently, they can vary in severity from the common cold to more severe conditions like sinusitis and bronchiolitis or pneumonia.

Here, we will explore the specifics of upper respiratory infection causes, risk factors, symptoms, and how they are diagnosed. Knowing when a doctor’s visit is necessary and recognizing if your upper respiratory symptoms are contagious is essential. Gaining insight into managing these pesky illnesses is necessary for your well-being and those around you.

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What Part of the Airway Is Affected by Upper Respiratory Infections?

Upper respiratory infections affect the upper part of the respiratory system, which include:

  • Nose
  • Sinuses
  • Pharynx
  • Larynx

Understanding Lower Respiratory Infections

Lower respiratory infections, whether viral or bacterial, affect the airways below the larynx, particularly the trachea and lungs. While viruses cause most of the bronchitis and bronchiolitis cases, bacterial infections cause many of the pneumonia cases. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common bacterial cause of community-acquired pneumonia.

Risk Factors for Upper Respiratory Infections

Upper respiratory infections can happen to anyone, but certain risk factors increase the likelihood of contracting them. Some of these risk factors include:

  • Exposure to children: Young children are known germ carriers, particularly those who frequently put their hands in their mouths. If you have contact with children in schools or daycare settings, the likelihood of developing an upper respiratory infection is higher.
  • Certain medical conditions may increase your risk: Those with asthma or allergic rhinitis are more susceptible to upper respiratory infections.
  • Tobacco usage: Smoking tobacco is associated with an increased risk for upper respiratory infections and may prolong symptoms.
  • Compromised immune system: Conditions like cancer, cystic fibrosis, HIV, or other conditions that lower the immune defenses may increase the odds of contracting an upper respiratory infection.

What Causes Upper Respiratory Infections?

Many types of viruses and bacteria can cause an upper respiratory infection. Yet, viruses are the most common cause.

Viral Causes

  • Rhinovirus: Most common viral cause.
  • Influenza: The flu virus
  • Adenovirus: Another common virus affecting the upper airway.
  • Enterovirus: Typically impacts the GI tract but can resemble the common cold.
  • Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV): Can be severe in infants and senior adults.

Bacterial Causes

Bacterial infections account for less than 12% of all upper respiratory illnesses. Since symptoms of viral and bacterial infections are often indistinguishable, accurate diagnosis is essential to prevent unnecessary antibiotic usage.

What Are the Types of Upper Respiratory Infections?

There are different kinds of respiratory infections. Doctors group them by the part of the respiratory system they affect the most. Some types of upper respiratory infections include:

  • Sinusitis: Inflammation of the sinus cavities, often due to an infection in a different part of the respiratory system.
  • Pharyngitis: Swelling and irritation of the mucus lining in the pharynx or back of the throat.
  • Rhinitis: The common cold affecting the nasal passages.
  • Tonsillitis: Inflammation of the tonsils.
  • Laryngitis: Swelling of the vocal cords can lead to a hoarse voice or voice loss.

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Are Upper Respiratory Infections Contagious?

The short answer is yes. Upper respiratory infections spread through tiny droplets when someone coughs, sneezes, or exhales. You can also catch the infection by touching surfaces with the virus or bacteria or by touching another person’s unwashed hands. If you touch your face, especially your mouth, nose, or eyes, with dirty hands, you increase your risk of being infected. This emphasizes the importance of regular hand washing for prevention.

Symptoms of Upper Respiratory Infections

The symptoms of an upper respiratory infection can vary depending on the specific pathogen causing the infection. However, common symptoms include:

Diagnosis

To determine if you have an upper respiratory infection, your healthcare provider will discuss your symptoms and review your health background. They will examine your ears, nose, and throat for any indicators of infection or swelling. They will also listen to your lungs using a stethoscope.

While identifying an upper respiratory infection based on symptoms and a physical exam alone is often the case, additional tests are sometimes needed to confirm the diagnosis or exclude other conditions. Some diagnostic tests may include:

  • Throat culture: Used to determine if a bacterial infection is the culprit for your symptoms. This test is done to rule out strep A
  • Nasal swab: Used to rule out other causes of infection, such as RSV, influenza or COVID-19
  • Blood testing: Determines a viral or bacterial cause
  • Chest X-ray: Images of the lungs are ordered if pneumonia is suspected

Treatment of Upper Respiratory Infections

Viruses cause most upper respiratory infections and will resolve on their own without the need for antibiotics. However, over-the-counter medications may help provide relief for many of the symptoms. These may include:

  • Fever and pain relievers: Such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen. These OTC medications can help with body aches, sore throat, and fevers.
  • Decongestants: Used to relieve nasal congestion.
  • Nasal saline: This can help with stuffiness or dryness in the nose.
  • Cough suppressants: These medications provide relief for that nagging cough.
  • Humidifier or steam: Using a humidifier or taking a hot shower can relieve congestion.

In cases where bacterial infection is present, antibiotics may be prescribed by a healthcare provider.

Preventing Upper Respiratory Infections

Preventing upper respiratory infections requires a multi-faceted approach that includes practicing good hygiene, such as regular handwashing, using tissues when sneezing or coughing, and avoiding touching the face. Maintaining a healthy lifestyle, including a balanced diet, regular exercise, and adequate sleep, can strengthen the immune system and reduce the risk of infections. Vaccinations are also available for specific viral infections like flu, RSV, and COVID-19. These are helpful in specific populations to protect the most vulnerable.

Role of Healthcare Associates of Texas in Treating Upper Respiratory Infections

At Healthcare Associates of Texas, we pride ourselves on offering exceptional care to our patients. While most upper respiratory infections are mild and can be managed at home, some may require medical attention. Symptoms such as difficulty breathing, persistent high fever, severe headache, and chest pain should be addressed immediately by a healthcare professional.

Our team of healthcare providers has extensive experience in diagnosing and treating upper respiratory infections. We understand the discomfort and inconvenience these infections can cause, and we are committed to helping our patients recover as quickly as possible. When you visit us, you can expect a thorough evaluation, accurate diagnosis, and a personalized treatment plan that meets your needs. Don’t hesitate—contact us today.

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References

  1. Purushothama V. Dasaraju and Chien Liu. (1996). Infections of The Respiratory System. Medical Microbiology, 4th ed. Chapter 93. https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/medicine-and-dentistry/upper-respiratory-tract-infection
  2. “Diversity of upper respiratory tract infections and prevalence of Streptococcus pneumoniae colonization among patients with fever and flu-like symptoms.” National Library of Medicine, January 7, 2019. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6323860/
  3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (January 6, 2023). Strep throat: All you need to know. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/groupastrep/diseases-public/strep-throat.html
  4. (April 28, 2021). Respiratory tract infections (RTIs). NHS. https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/respiratory-tract-infection/

Cleveland Clinic. (n.d.). Upper Respiratory Infection. Cleveland Clinic. https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/articles/4022-upper-respiratory-infection

DISCLAIMER
The information featured in this site is general in nature. The site provides health information designed to complement your personal health management. It does not provide medical advice or health services and is not meant to replace professional advice or imply coverage of specific clinical services or products. The inclusion of links to other web sites does not imply any endorsement of the material on such websites.

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Posted in: Respiratory Health